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1)LIFE (Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study)

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BACKGROUND: The most suitable antihypertensive drug to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertension and diabetes is unclear. In prespecified analyses, we compared the effects of losartan and atenolol on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. METHODS: As part of the LIFE study, in a double-masked, randomised, parallel-group trial, we assigned a group of 1195 patients with diabetes, hypertension, and signs of left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on electrocardiograms losartan-based or atenolol-based treatment. Mean age of patients was 67 years (SD 7) and mean blood pressure 177/96 mm Hg (14/10) after placebo run-in. We followed up patients for at least 4 years (mean 4.7 years [1.1]). We used Cox regression analysis with baseline Framingham risk score and electrocardiogram-LVH as covariates to compare the effects of the drugs on the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction). FINDINGS: Mean blood pressure fell to 146/79 mm Hg (17/11) in losartan patients and 148/79 mm Hg (19/11) in atenolol patients. The primary endpoint occurred in 103 patients assigned losartan (n=586) and 139 assigned atenolol (n=609); relative risk 0.76 (95% CI 0.58-.98), p=0.031. 38 and 61 patients in the losartan and atenolol groups, respectively, died from cardiovascular disease; 0.63 (0.42-0.95), p=0.028. Mortality from all causes was 63 and 104 in losartan and atenolol groups, respectively; 0.61 (0.45-0.84), p=0.002. INTERPRETATION: Losartan was more effective than atenolol in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as mortality from all causes in patients with hypertension, diabetes, and LVH. Losartan seems to have benefits beyond blood pressure reduction.

2)DIGAMI (Glycometabolic state at admission: important risk marker of mortality in conventionally treated patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction: long-term results from the Diabetes and Insulin-Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (DIGAMI) study)


BACKGROUND: The Diabetes and Insulin-Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (DIGAMI) study addressed prognostic factors and the effects of concomitant treatment and glycometabolic control in diabetic patients with myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 620 diabetic patients with AMI, 306 were randomly assigned to a >/=24-hour insulin-glucose infusion followed by multidose subcutaneous insulin. Three hundred fourteen patients were randomized as controls, receiving routine antidiabetic therapy. Thrombolysis and beta-blockers were administered when possible. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to study predictors of long-term mortality. During an average follow-up of 3.4 years (range, 1.6 to 5.6 years), 102 patients (33%) in the intensive insulin group and 138 (44%) in the control group died (P=0. 011). Old age, previous heart failure, diabetes duration, admission blood glucose, and admission Hb AIc were independent predictors of mortality in the total cohort, whereas previous AMI, hypertension, smoking, or female sex did not add independent predictive value. Metabolic control, mirrored by blood glucose and Hb AIc, improved significantly more in patients on intensive insulin treatment than in the control group. beta-Blockers improved survival in control subjects, whereas thrombolysis was most efficient in the intensive insulin group. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in diabetic patients with AMI is predicted by age, previous heart failure, and severity of the glycometabolic state at admission but not by conventional risk factors or sex. Intensive insulin treatment reduced long-term mortality despite high admission blood glucose and Hb AIc.


3)DIGAMI-2 (Intense metabolic control by means of insulin in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI 2): effects on mortality and morbidity)


AIMS: Patients with diabetes have an unfavourable prognosis after an acute myocardial infarction. In the first DIGAMI study, an insulin-based glucose management improved survival. In DIGAMI 2, three treatment strategies were compared: group 1, acute insulin-glucose infusion followed by insulin-based long-term glucose control; group 2, insulin-glucose infusion followed by standard glucose control; and group 3, routine metabolic management according to local practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: DIGAMI 2 recruited 1253 patients (mean age 68 years; 67% males) with type 2 diabetes and suspected acute myocardial infarction randomly assigned to groups 1 (n=474), 2 (n=473), and 3 (n=306). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality between groups 1 and 2, and a difference was hypothesized as the primary objective. The secondary objective was to compare total mortality between groups 2 and 3, whereas morbidity differences served as tertiary objectives. The median study duration was 2.1 (interquartile range 1.03-3.00) years. At randomization, HbA1c was 7.2, 7.3, and 7.3% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, whereas blood glucose was 12.8, 12.5, and 12.9 mmol/L, respectively. Blood glucose was significantly reduced after 24 h in all groups, more in groups 1 and 2 (9.1 and 9.1 mmol/L) receiving insulin-glucose infusion than in group 3 (10.0 mmol/L). Long-term glucose-lowering treatment differed between groups with multidose insulin (> or =3 doses/day) given to 15 and 13% of patients in groups 2 and 3, respectively compared with 42% in group 1 at hospital discharge. By the end of follow-up, HbA1c did not differ significantly among groups 1-3 ( approximately 6.8%). The corresponding values for fasting blood glucose were 8.0, 8.3, and 8.6 mmol/L. Hence, the target fasting blood glucose for patients in group 1 of 5-7 mmol/L was never reached. The study mortality (groups 1-3 combined) was 18.4%. Mortality between groups 1 (23.4%) and 2 (22.6%; primary endpoint) did not differ significantly (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.79-1.34; P=0.831), nor did mortality between groups 2 (22.6%) and 3 (19.3%; secondary endpoint) (HR 1.23; CI 0.89-1.69; P=0.203). There were no significant differences in morbidity expressed as non-fatal reinfarctions and strokes among the three groups. CONCLUSION: DIGAMI 2 did not support the fact that an acutely introduced, long-term insulin treatment improves survival in type 2 diabetic patients following myocardial infarction when compared with a conventional management at similar levels of glucose control or that insulin-based treatment lowers the number of non-fatal myocardial reinfarctions and strokes. However, an epidemiological analysis confirms that the glucose level is a strong, independent predictor of long-term mortality in this patient category, underlining that glucose control seems to be an important part of their management.

4) ) STOP-NIDDM (Acarbose for the prevention of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) Trial)


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), the effect of acarbose on the incidence of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) Trial was an international, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized investigation, undertaken in 9 participating countries from December 1995 through August 2001. Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 715) or acarbose, 100 mg three times a day (N = 714), and underwent follow-up for a mean of 3.3 years. Sixty-one subjects (4%) were excluded from the study because they did not have IGT or had no postrandomization data; thus, 1,368 subjects remained for intent-to-treat analysis. The outcome measures were the development of diabetes based on a single oral glucose tolerance test, the development of hypertension ((3) 140/90 mm Hg), and the development of major cardiovascular events, including coronary heart disease, cardiovascular death, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. RESULTS: Two hundred eleven subjects in the acarbose-treated group and 130 in the placebo group discontinued treatment prematurely; however, they underwent follow-up for assessment of end points. Acarbose treatment resulted in a 25% relative risk reduction in the development of type 2 diabetes (hazards ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.90; P = 0.0015), in a 34% risk reduction in the development of new cases of hypertension (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.89; P = 0.0059), and in a 49% risk reduction in the development of cardiovascular events (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.95; P = 0.03). A post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis done from the Swedish perspective showed that acarbose treatment was likely to be cost-effective in the management of subjects with IGT. CONCLUSION: The STOP-NIDDM Trial demonstrated that, in subjects with IGT, acarbose treatment was effective in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. It also suggested that it was associated with a reduction in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

5) IDNT (Irbersartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial)


BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria and hypertension are risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are lacking for hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist irbesartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. METHODS: A total of 590 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria were enrolled in this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of irbesartan, at a dose of either 150 mg daily or 300 mg daily, and were followed for two years. The primary outcome was the time to the onset of diabetic nephropathy, defined by persistent albuminuria in overnight specimens, with a urinary albumin excretion rate that was greater than 200 microg per minute and at least 30 percent higher than the base-line level. RESULTS: The base-line characteristics in the three groups were similar. Ten of the 194 patients in the 300-mg group (5.2 percent) and 19 of the 195 patients in the 150-mg group (9.7 percent) reached the primary end point, as compared with 30 of the 201 patients in the placebo group (14.9 percent) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.61; P< 0.001] and 0.61 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 1.08; P=0.081 for the two irbesartan groups, respectively). The average blood pressure during the course of the study was 144/83 mm Hg in the placebo group, 143/83 mm Hg in the 150-mg group, and 141/83 mm Hg in the 300-mg group (P=0.004 for the comparison of systolic blood pressure between the placebo group and the combined irbesartan groups). Serious adverse events were less frequent among the patients treated with irbesartan (P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Irbesartan is renoprotective independently of its blood-pressure-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.

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