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1)SHEP (Long-term effect of diuretic-based therapy on fatal outcomes in subjects with isolated systolic hypertension with and without diabetes),1991

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Diuretic-based antihypertensive therapy is associated with the development of diabetes but with improved clinical outcomes. It has been proposed that the duration of clinical trials has been too short to detect the adverse effects of diabetes. We assessed the long-term mortality rate of subjects in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (n = 4,732) who were randomized to stepped-care therapy with 12.5 to 25.0 mg/day of chlorthalidone or matching placebo. If blood pressure remained above the goal, atenolol or matching placebo was added. At a mean follow-up of 14.3 years, cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate was significantly lower in the chlorthalidone group (19%) than in the placebo group (22%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.854, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.751 to 0.972). Diabetes at baseline (n = 799) was associated with increased CV mortality rate (adjusted HR 1.659, 95% CI 1.413 to 1.949) and total mortality rate (adjusted HR 1.510, 95% CI 1.347 to 1.693). Diabetes that developed during the trial among subjects on placebo (n = 169) was also associated with increased CV adverse outcome (adjusted HR 1.562, 95% CI 1.117 to 2.184) and total mortality rate (adjusted HR 1.348, 95% CI 1.051 to 1.727). However, diabetes that developed among subjects during diuretic therapy (n = 258) did not have significant associations with CV mortality rate (adjusted HR 1.043, 95% CI 0.745 to 1.459) or total mortality rate (adjusted HR 1.151, 95% CI 0.925 to 1.433). Diuretic treatment in subjects who had diabetes was strongly associated with lower long-term CV mortality rate (adjusted HR 0.688, 95% CI 0.526 to 0.848) and total mortality rate (adjusted HR 0.805, 95% CI 0.680 to 0.952). Thus, chlorthalidone-based treatment improved long-term outcomes, especially among subjects who had diabetes. Subjects who had diabetes associated with chlorthalidone had no significant increase in CV events and had a better prognosis than did those who had preexisting diabetes.

2) DASH (Effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) 1999


OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure in subgroups. METHODS: Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) was a randomized controlled feeding study conducted at 4 academic medical centers. Participants were 459 adults with untreated systolic blood pressure less than 160 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure 80 to 95 mm Hg. For 3 weeks, participants were fed a "control" diet. They were then randomized to 8 weeks of (1) control diet; (2) a diet rich in fruits and vegetables; or (3) a combination diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods, and reduced in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol (the DASH combination diet). Weight and salt intake were held constant. Change in diastolic blood pressure was the primary outcome variable, and systolic blood pressure a secondary outcome. Subgroups analyzed included race, sex, age, body mass index, years of education, income, physical activity, alcohol intake, and hypertension status. RESULTS: The combination diet significantly lowered systolic blood pressure in all subgroups (P<.008), and significantly lowered diastolic blood pressure (P<.01) in all but 2 subgroups. The fruits-and-vegetables diet also reduced blood pressure in the same subgroups, but to a lesser extent. The combination diet lowered systolic blood pressure significantly more in African Americans (6.8 mm Hg) than in whites (3.0 mm Hg), and in hypertensive subjects (11.4 mm Hg) than in nonhypertensive subjects (3.4 mm Hg) (P<.05 for both interactions). CONCLUSIONS: The DASH combination diet, without sodium reduction or weight loss, significantly lowered blood pressure in virtually all subgroups examined, and was particularly effective in African Americans and those with hypertension. The DASH combination diet may be an effective strategy for preventing and treating hypertension in a broad cross section of the population, including segments of the population at highest risk for blood pressure-related cardiovascular disease.

3) HOT (Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment), 1998


BACKGROUND: Despite treatment, there is often a higher incidence of cardiovascular complications in patients with hypertension than in normotensive individuals. Inadequate reduction of their blood pressure is a likely cause, but the optimum target blood pressure is not known. The impact of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) has never been investigated in patients with hypertension. We aimed to assess the optimum target diastolic blood pressure and the potential benefit of a low dose of acetylsalicylic acid in the treatment of hypertension. METHODS: 18790 patients, from 26 countries, aged 50-80 years (mean 61.5 years) with hypertension and diastolic blood pressure between 100 mm Hg and 115 mm Hg (mean 105 mm Hg) were randomly assigned a target diastolic blood pressure. 6264 patients were allocated to the target pressure < or =90 mm Hg, 6264 to < or =85 mm Hg, and 6262 to < or =80 mm Hg. Felodipine was given as baseline therapy with the addition of other agents, according to a five-step regimen. In addition, 9399 patients were randomly assigned 75 mg/day acetylsalicylic acid (Bamycor, Astra) and 9391 patients were assigned placebo. FINDINGS: Diastolic blood pressure was reduced by 20.3 mm Hg, 22.3 mm Hg, and 24.3 mm Hg, in the < or =90 mm Hg, < or =85 mm Hg, and < or =80 mm Hg target groups, respectively. The lowest incidence of major cardiovascular events occurred at a mean achieved diastolic blood pressure of 82.6 mm Hg; the lowest risk of cardiovascular mortality occurred at 86.5 mm Hg. Further reduction below these blood pressures was safe. In patients with diabetes mellitus there was a 51% reduction in major cardiovascular events in target group < or =80 mm Hg compared with target group < or =90 mm Hg (p for trend=0.005). Acetylsalicylic acid reduced major cardiovascular events by 15% (p=0.03) and all myocardial infarction by 36% (p=0.002), with no effect on stroke. There were seven fatal bleeds in the acetylsalicylic acid group and eight in the placebo group, and 129 versus 70 non-fatal major bleeds in the two groups, respectively (p<0.001). INTERPRETATION: Intensive lowering of blood pressure in patients with hypertension was associated with a low rate of cardiovascular events. The HOT Study shows the benefits of lowering the diastolic blood pressure down to 82.6 mm Hg. Acetylsalicylic acid significantly reduced major cardiovascular events with the greatest benefit seen in all myocardial infarction. There was no effect on the incidence of stroke or fatal bleeds, but non-fatal major bleeds were twice as common.

4) STONE (Shanghai trial of nifedipine in the elderly)


OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of nifedipine treatment in elderly hypertensives. METHODS: A single-blind trial was conducted under the direction of the Shanghai Institute of Hypertension in 1632 subjects aged 60-79 years alternatively allocated to either nifedipine or placebo after a 4-week placebo run-in period between 1987 and 1990 with mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical events and risk modification were analysed in collaboration with the University of Montreal. Seventy-four patients with severe hypertension were reallocated to active nifedipine treatment after placebo run-in. RESULTS: Cox's proportional hazards model accounting for covariates demonstrated a highly significant decrease in the probability of events: 'original treatment assignment' analysis indicated that 77 events occurred in the placebo and 32 in the nifedipine group. Similar significances were achieved with 'actual treatment' or 'changes excluded' (excluding reallocated subjects) analyses. A significant reduction in relative risk was observed for strokes and severe arrhythmia with an overall decrease from 1.0 to 0.41 (95% confidence interval 0.27-0.61). CONCLUSION: Nifedipine treatment diminished the number of severe clinical outcomes in elderly hypertensives significantly.


5)Syst-Eur Trial (Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in Europe),1997


BACKGROUND: Isolated systolic hypertension occurs in about 15% of people aged 60 years or older. In 1989, the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly investigated whether active treatment could reduce cardiovascular complications of isolated systolic hypertension. Fatal and non-fatal stroke combined was the primary endpoint. METHODS: All patients (> 60 years) were initially started on masked placebo. At three run-in visits 1 month apart, their average sitting systolic blood pressure was 160-219 mm Hg with a diastolic blood pressure lower than 95 mm Hg. After stratification for centre, sex, and previous cardiovascular complications, 4695 patients were randomly assigned to nitrendipine 10-40 mg daily, with the possible addition of enalapril 5-20 mg daily and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5-25.0 mg daily, or matching placebos. Patients withdrawing from double-blind treatment were still followed up. We compared occurrence of major endpoints by intention to treat. FINDINGS: At a median of 2 years' follow-up, sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures had fallen by 13 mm Hg and 2 mm Hg in the placebo group (n = 2297) and by 23 mm Hg and 7 mm Hg in the active treatment group (n = 2398). The between-group differences were systolic 10.1 mm Hg (95% CI 8.8-11.4) and diastolic, 4.5 mm Hg (3.9-5.1). Active treatment reduced the total rate of stroke from 13.7 to 7.9 endpoints per 1000 patient-years (42% reduction; p = 0.003). Non-fatal stroke decreased by 44% (p = 0.007). In the active treatment group, all fatal and non-fatal cardiac endpoints, including sudden death, declined by 26% (p = 0.03). Non-fatal cardiac endpoints decreased by 33% (p = 0.03) and all fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular endpoints by 31% (p < 0.001). Cardiovascular mortality was slightly lower on active treatment (-27%, p = 0.07), but all-cause mortality was not influenced (-14%; p = 0.22). INTERPRETATION: Among elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension, antihypertensive drug treatment starting with nitrendipine reduces the rate of cardiovascular complications. Treatment of 1000 patients for 5 years with this type of regimen may prevent 29 strokes or 53 major cardiovascular endpoints.

6) PROGRESS (Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure-lowering regimen among 6,105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack), 2001


BACKGROUND: Blood pressure is a determinant of the risk of stroke among both hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals with cerebrovascular disease. However, there is uncertainty about the efficacy and safety of blood-pressure-lowering treatments for many such patients. The perindopril protection against recurrent stroke study (PROGRESS) was designed to determine the effects of a blood-pressure-lowering regimen in hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: 6105 individuals from 172 centres in Asia, Australasia, and Europe were randomly assigned active treatment (n=3051) or placebo (n=3054). Active treatment comprised a flexible regimen based on the angiotensin- converting-enzyme inhibitor perindopril (4 mg daily), with the addition of the diuretic indapamide at the discretion of treating physicians. The primary outcome was total stroke (fatal or non-fatal). Analysis was by intention to treat. FINDINGS: Over 4 years of follow up, active treatment reduced blood pressure by 9/4 mm Hg. 307 (10%) individuals assigned active treatment suffered a stroke, compared with 420 (14%) assigned placebo (relative risk reduction 28% [95% CI 17-38], p<0.0001). Active treatment also reduced the risk of total major vascular events (26% [16-34]). There were similar reductions in the risk of stroke in hypertensive and non-hypertensive subgroups (all p<0.01). Combination therapy with perindopril plus indapamide reduced blood pressure by 12/5 mm Hg and stroke risk by 43% (30-54). Single-drug therapy reduced blood pressure by 5/3 mm Hg and produced no discernable reduction in the risk of stroke. INTERPRETATION: This blood-pressure-lowering regimen reduced the risk of stroke among both hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Combination therapy with perindopril and indapamide produced larger blood pressure reductions and larger risk reductions than did single drug therapy with perindopril alone. Treatment with these two agents should now be considered routinely for patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack, irrespective of their blood pressure.

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